Childcare Sageguarding and Welfare

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Course Title: Child Care Diploma
Assignment Number: CPD 4.1
Postcode: BH17 7YR

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.1

a) What is meant by safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children
b) What is meant by child protection
c) How do the two fit together
d) What is the LSCB, and what is their role

a) Safeguarding is a term that??™s been used more prominently following the tragic death of Victoria Climbe, and the investigation that followed. This investigation was published as the Laming Report.
Working together to Safe guard Children (Department of Health, 2005) says:

???Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined as:
* Protecting children from maltreatment.
* Preventing impairment of children??™s health and development, and
* Ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care;
And undertaking that role so as to enable those children to have optimum life chances and enter adulthood successfully???

Papersowl Reviews is a crew of sharp specialists who approve of consulting scholars on whatever topics they are skilled at – solely because distributing the tips can only aid all of us.
b) Working together to safeguard children says that child protection is a subset of safeguarding and promoting welfare. In other words, child protection is an activity that is undertaken to protect specific who are suffering or at risk of suffering significant harm.
c) The document ???What to do if you??™re worried a child is being abused??? which was updated in 2006 is a very useful document produced following the

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.1

Victoria Climbe enquiry and the aim is to support professionals complying with government guidance on safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children, the Framework for Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (2000) and Working Together to Safeguard Children (2006).
d) The LSCB is responsible for local area procedures and each local authority has a local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB). I need to make myself familiar with these procedures, and I may need to have a copy in full or in summary, depending on my local area requirements of the procedures in my child-care business.

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.2

a) Use the diagram to show your understanding of definitions of abuse and neglect.
b) Abuse is rarely carried out by strangers. Why do you think this is
c) Give four categories of abuse.
a)

b) Abuse is rarely carried out by strangers this is a fact that most child abuse is carried out by someone known to the child whether a family member, trusted friend of the family, or professional.
???According to numbers provided by the National Association of Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse, parents generally teach their children about ???stranger danger??? from an early age, telling them not to talk to, walk with or take gifts or candy from strangers, but statistics show danger often lurks closer to home???.( www.dnaindia.com ??? LIFESTYLE)

c) Definitions of the main categories of child abuse are as follows:
Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.2

Physical Abuse:
Physical abuse can involve some or all of the following:
* Hitting a child.
* Violent shaking or rocking of a child.
* Poisoning a child.
* Burning or scalding a child.
* Drowning a child.
* Suffocating a child.
Any kind of physical abuse is in other words physically harming a child and this physical harm may also be caused when a parent or a carer fabricates the symptoms of the child they are abusing or deliberately causes ill-health to a child that they are looking after.
Although the definition of physical abuse is only clear at the extremes, you can??™t be sure that a child who is never hit, poisoned, burnt etc. hasn??™t been physically abused, and at the other extreme physical abuse is clear. The question is what??™s the difference between hitting a child for no apparent reason and smacking a child when they have done something you don??™t want them doing, could that be classed as being physically abusive. Physical abuse is a spectrum-at one end physical interaction is clearly abusive, and at the other end it??™s clearly not. In the middle are uncertainties and the impact on the child varies according to other factors.
In my opinion smacking a child is wrong, as this will teach children that the way to deal with difficulties or disagreements is to hurt the people who are causing the friction. Children learn that when they get old enough and strong enough they can be violent as a means of getting their own way. Although smacking is legal in the UK
Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.2

and in Europe, I would never smack a child for the above reason it teaches them the wrong ideas of how to handle and cope with certain situations.
Emotional Abuse:
Emotional abuse is when an adult persistently ill-treats a child to cause them severe and adverse effects which causes problems for the child??™s emotional development.
A child can feel unloved, inadequate, or valued only so far as they meet the needs of another person. Emotional abuse can cause the child to under achieve at school as emotionally abused children find it difficult to interact with other children as they are afraid of limitation of exploration and learning. Emotional abuse may also involve children to frequently feel frightened or in danger.
Emotional abuse can teach children that they are only wanted if they are meeting someone else??™s needs-the child who persistently is sent to fetch things for parents or regularly told ???mummy needs a hug??? but not for any particular reason is inappropriate expectations.
Sexual Abuse:
Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in physical sexual activities, which can include prostitution, a child wouldn??™t be aware of what is happening, whereas a young adult is aware of what??™s happening but they are too frightened so they go along with what??™s happening. Sexual abuse can involve physical contact, including penetrative or non-penetrative acts. Non-contact activities can include the child looking at the production of pornographic material or watching adults doing sexual activities or encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways.
Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.2

All child abuse is uncomfortable to think about and talk about but as a professional child carer I must take a part in developing my understanding so I can protect children and promote their welfare.
Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child??™s basic physical and/or psychological needs, which is likely to result in the serious impairment of the child??™s health or development. Neglect is often defined as unresponsiveness to a child??™s basic emotional needs. Neglect can include inadequate food, shelter from home or failing to protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger and inadequate supervision of children.
Neglect and emotional abuse maybe associated with intentional hostility and rejection, but are more often the result of the parent??™s/caregivers inability to provide adequate care.

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.3

It??™s time for parents to collect their children. Aliah??™s mother comes to collect her. You ask to speak to the mother as Aliah (4 year old girl) has been hitting other children during the day. The mother??™s response is to hit Aliah across the face and say ???wait till I get you home, you??™re for it!
a) What is your immediate response
b) What do you do while Aliah and her mother are there
c) Any other reaction you want to take, or recording you want to do
d) Describe the facts of the situation.
e) In what ways might Aliah be experiencing emotional abuse

a) I should never ignore the signs of abuse. I have a duty and responsibility to ensure that all children in my care are safe and protected. If I suspect Aliah is being abuse I must record and report it immediately. Aliah??™s welfare must be my first priority.
b) I need to not over react and stay calm; I should try and establish why Aliah??™s mother is behaving like this towards Aliah. Ask her some questions but make sure they open minded questions like; ???Are you ok Is Aliah having behaviour problems and you are not sure how to cope I should keep the questions brief otherwise Aliah??™s mother might start to think I??™m raising suspicions. I should start the conversation by offering a sympathetic ear rather than my disapproval and judgement, but making sure my worries get a hearing. I record all of my findings/observations right from the start when Aliah started hitting other children to Aliah??™s mother??™s response. I will need this evidence to make a referral to the Local Authority Children Social Care Team.
c) I should raise my concerns with the designated Child Protection Officer in my Local Area immediately and then depending on the initial findings the matter

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.3

should be referred to the LCSB. I should also notify Ofsted and keep them updated with the referral case.
d) The facts of the situation are:
* Aliah is a 4 year old girl, who has been hitting other children through the day.
* Aliah??™s mother collects her.
* I ask to speak to Aliah??™s mother, about Aliah??™s hitting other children antics.
* Aliah??™s mother responds by hitting Aliah across the face, and saying ???Wait till I get you home, you??™re for it???

e) Aliah might be experiencing emotional abuse in the following ways:
* Her mother could be regularly yelling, threatening and hitting Aliah.
* Aliah??™s mother could be always humiliating Aliah making her feel unloved.
* Aliah??™s mother could be rejecting and ignoring Aliah, as a punishment, giving Aliah the silent treatment.
* Aliah is showing signs of extreme behaviour by displaying aggressive behaviour.

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.4

Give your responses to the following situations. Say how concerned, if at all you are. Say what reassures you and what raises concern.

1. An 18 month has a bruise on her forehead. Mum mentions it when dropping the child off, saying the child fell and banged her head on the coffee table.
2. A 4 year old has outline bruises on his shine. Dad mentions when he drops his son off that he??™s been playing on his bike last night.
3. A 4 year old has outline bruises across her buttocks and the tops of her thighs and on the back of her legs. Mum says she fell going downstairs yesterday evening.
4. A 4 year old arrives wearing jeans and a jumper on a war, summer day. As dad leaves, he kisses his son goodbye and smiles, saying ???don??™t forget what I told you???. The child later whimpers when you push him on the swing.
5. You are changing the nappy of a 10 month old girl, when you notice she is red and sore round her bottom and genitals.
6. A 6 year old girl is playing in the paddling pool in her swim suit. You notice she has a group of small round bruise marks on her inner thighs. She regularly scratches or rubs at her genitals throughout the day.

1. An 18 month old girl is exploring her world, a bruise on her forehead where she fell and hit her head on the coffee table is a good explanation from her mum. I wouldn??™t be that concerned about it and I would tell mum that I will keep an eye on her daughter for any changes to the bruise in shape, colour and size and that I will phone her if any of this happens.
2. The outline bruises on the boys shin could well be from playing on he??™s bike last night. But the concerns I have are:
Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.4

* Why was a 4 year old outdoors playing on he??™s bike in the evening
* Were he??™s parents supervising
* Could the outline bruises be a sign that the boy is being abused
* I will raise my concerns by doing a referral to the The Local Authority Children??™s Social Care Team and then I will inform the parents that I made the referral, explaining why I did, but making sure I don??™t excuse them of anything or raise suspicions that I??™m inclining anything. I will then inform OFSTED of the referral and keep them updated on the situation.
3. A 4 year old who falls downstairs isn??™t likely to get bruises across his buttocks and tops of thighs like he??™s mum said when she dropped him off, her explanation is not convincing. Bruises that are symmetrical are signs that the 4 year old boy is being abused. I will take the steps to make a referral and inform LCSA and OFSTED immediately.
4. My first reactions would be:
* Why is the child wearing winter clothes on a hot summer day
* What did he??™s dad mean by saying ???Don??™t forget what I told you??? to he??™s son as he left
* Was the kiss and smile goodbye a bribe to keep the boy quiet
These actions from the boys dad have me raising alarm bells, could the boy be suffering from abuse And when the boy whimpers later when I push him on the swing my concerns get more suspicious.
I could question the boy, but remember too keep the questioning brief and open-ended. For example ???Aren??™t you hot??? Remember to record all of the observations from the boy and he??™s dad. This recording will be followed through by the LCSA if necessary, do not speak to the family about my suspicions LCSA will do this once they have got all of the evidence.
5. My concerns that a 10 month old girl has a red and sore bottom are:
* She has nappy rash that is untreated.
Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.4

* Untreated nappy rash can be a sign of child neglect.
I always keep records of what time I change nappies, what sort of nappy wet/soiled and I sign and date each nappy change. In the Notes I write down anything else I see and do i.e. nappy rash, cream and how much I apply. I show this form to the parents on a daily basis. So when the 10 month old girl gets picked up at the end of the day, I will mention to her parent??™s that she has nappy rash and recommend what treatment should be used. Over the next few days I will check that the nappy rash is being treated. If it is then no further action is required. If it??™s not being treated then I follow procedures and policies.
6. My concerns about a 6 year old girl who has a group of small bruise marks on her inner thighs and she scratches and rubs her genitals throughout the day are:
* Is the child being sexually abused As those bruises don??™t look like their consistent with accidental injury.
* Another sign that the girl could be suffering child sexual abuse is that she??™s continuously scratching and rubbing her genital area throughout the day.
I need to record all observations that raise concerns about the girls welfare, making sure they are factual and not personal opinions or assumptions. I will report the suspected sexual abuse to the LCSA. I don??™t have to inform the parents that I??™ve made a sexual abuse referral as this will put the child at higher risk of harm. The LCSA will protect the child if required to do so.

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.5

Download a copy of ???What to do if you??™re worried a child is being abused???
Develop your child protection policy and procedure. (You can access sample procedures to adapt for this if it is helpful)

Procedures for following suspected child abuse:

* I will immediately express my concerns of the situation to my designated child protection officer.
* The matter will be referred to the Local Authority Children??™s Social Care immediately and a written referral will be done within 48 hours.
* Ofsted will be notified of the referral and kept informed of the outcome from LCSA.
* If appropriate I will keep the child??™s parents fully informed throughout.
* I will work with the child and their parents to offer them support and rebuild trust.

Policies to follow regarding child protection:

My child-minding business is fully committed to promoting children??™s rights, notably their right to be protected from harm, abuse and exploitation and to be involved in any decisions that directly affect them. I??™ve a duty of care to implement effective policies and procedures for safeguarding the welfare of children Furthermore I??™ll actively endeavour to keep up to date with national developments relating to the care and protection of children.
I will:
1. Ensure that I understand my legal and moral obligations to protect children from harm, abuse and exploitation.
2. Provide opportunities for myself to overview my training on child protection organisation purposes, values, structure and services.
Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.5

3. Ensure that all I understand my responsibility to work to the standards and procedures detailed in the organisations Code of Good Practice, Good Conduct and Child Protection procedures.
4. Ensure that the designated child protection officer understands his/her responsibility to refer any child protection concerns to the statutory child protection agencies (i.e. police and/or social work)
5. Ensure that my organisation meets all its responsibilities in adhering to the requirements of the Children Act 2004 & Childcare Act 2006.
6. Ensure that children are able to express their ideas and views on a wide range of issues and will have access to the organisation??™s complaints procedures.

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.6

a) Where would you phone the relevant phone number for the LSCB
b) How do you make a referral child protection concerns
c) List 3 things you must do and 3 things you must not do.
d) What is your response to an allegation that you have hit a child in your care

a) If I??™ve a concern about a child or an allegation is made about me. I need to report this by following my local authority procedures this is called ???making a referral ???I would phone my local LSCB which is in my child protection policies and procedures file.
b) When making a referral I should discuss with the parent??™s what my role is, keep accurate records of all concerns and confirm in writing within 48 Hours to my local authorities who have specific forms to use.

c) Three things that I must do when suspecting child abuse are:

1. I must not ask questions to prompt discussion or information about abuse. The reason for this is that ???evidence??? could be seriously affected if the right procedures aren??™t followed.
2. I must never photograph injuries or marks on a child. This can be classed as abusive, and it jas no value at all in the process.
3. I must never remove a child??™s clothes for the purpose of examining them for marks. I may notice marks when changing a child as part of the routine of the day, but I mustn??™t create these circumstances deliberately to examine a child.

Three things that I must do when suspecting child abuse are:

1. Notice and record all injuries, and check out significant bruising or marks, reporting these as I think necessary.
Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.6

2. Be aware of what??™s ???normal??? in terms of children??™s development in relation to their conversation and play etc. Watch for discrepancies.
3. Build resilience in children by developing positive self-images, encouraging high self-esteem and self- confidence.

d) If there is an allegation made against me, I need to notify my Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) immediately. The LADO will be able to follow the right procedures. This is very important for safeguarding children, and will ensure I??™m protected in the event of unsubstantiated allegations, which might occur. Following the right procedures will protect me of the wrongful allegations, and protect children where the allegations are valid.

My response to being accused of hitting a child would be:

All childcare professionals are at risk from allegations of abuse. As a child-minder, I??™m often working on my own, without any adult witnesses to my child-minding practice. It is vital that i take every step possible to protect myself and my family from allegations against you. Consistent good practice, observation and good record keeping are the key to protecting me.

Points to consider if an allegation is made against me:

* All allegations and complaints have to be investigated.
* I need to be aware of what to do if an allegation of child abuse is made against me.
* I must inform Ofsted immediately. This team will contact the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO)
* I should inform my Public Liability Insurers – there may be insurance implications and they may have additional requirements for me to carry out.
Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.6

* Seek legal advice from a solicitor or Law Centre. Find the number in Yellow Pages or ask your Citizens Advice Bureau for assistance. Some providers of public liability insurance offer a free legal advice telephone service
* During an investigation, it is advisable to keep records of all meetings, telephone calls and letters, both written and received.

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.7

a) How soon after a referral must the local authority decide what action to take
b) If there is a strategy meeting, there are 3 possible paths forward. What are these
c) What does each one mean

a) After receiving a referral. The local authority must decide within 24 hours what action to take first. If there is a concern about a child??™s immediate safety, the police may be involved, and they can also take immediate action. The local authority is responsible for investigating concerns about any child who is present in their area.
b) If there is a strategy meeting there are 3 possible paths forward these are:
1) No further action.
2) An initial or core assessment of need (with or without provision of a service)
3) A section 47 enquiry and/or emergency protective action.
c) Each possible path means:
1) No further action: The decision where the child isn??™t considered to be at risk. There may be a decision to refer to other agencies, for example for family support.
2) An initial assessment: This is carried out using the Framework for Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (DoH, 2000). The social worker allocated has 7 days in which to complete the initial assessment.

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.7

3) Section 47: This comes from the section 47 of the Children Act 1989. Section 47 says what enquiries the local authority are required to carry out. This includes a core assessment, using the same framework as the initial assessment but gathering more detailed information from a range of people. If this shows that the child is at risk of significant harm, a child protection conference, or a Child Action Meeting will be called. This must be held within 15 days of the strategy discussion.

Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.8

a) Why is it important to have support around child abuse
b) Where can you support
c) Identify key things you might find difficult when thinking about responding to child abuse.
d) What are you going to do actively to get support in these areas

a) It is important to have support around child abuse because:
* I can prevent early identification of the signs and symptoms of child abuse and neglect, and any changes in a child??™s behaviour which warrant concerns.
* I can protect children and it??™s very important that I develop an effective way of pooling information to gain a full picture about a child I??™m concerned about with the relevant agencies such as The Children??™s Social Care Authority and OFSTED.
* I must put my child protection policies and procedures into action if I??™ve concerns about the welfare of a child, as I don??™t want to delay further investigation.
b) I can support a child who is the subject of abuse by:
* Informing The Children??™s Social Care Authority, Ofsted and/or the Police immediately.
* Realise that my concerns are significant and have to be passed on.
* Support a child who decides to me about abuse.
c) The key facts that I might find difficult to think about when responding to child abuse could be:
Dealing with child abuse isn??™t easy. I must keep in mind that there are many situations that aren??™t clear cases of abuse. I must be very careful and sensitive when dealing with abuse. I must keep personal thoughts and feelings out of it.
Name: Alison Craft
Student Number: HL/0016939
Assignment Number: CPD 4.8

* Avoiding blaming and judging the child??™s parents.
* Situations that appear to be abuse can sometimes be something else. Also it??™s not my responsibility to find the cause for the abuse. Be careful what questions I ask the parent??™s and keep my responses neutral and calm.
* Avoid displaying any emotions. I might find it difficult to remain uninvolved.
d) What I can do to actively support the areas of child abuse are:
* When I??™m concerned about a child??™s welfare, the first step is to talk to the child??™s parents. Check with the parent??™s by asking them for an explanations of bruises/marks. But be careful how I ask these questions as I don??™t want them thinking I??™m raising suspicions.
* If I suspect child sexual abuse, serious neglect or physical abuse, I must not talk to the child??™s parents. I must talk to The Children??™s Social Care Authority immediately and they will advise me what to do next.
* I should demonstrate a professional approach to childcare. This will go along way to establish my reputation as a competent person offering a safe place for young children. Other places where I regularly check for updates and advise on childcare protection include, the NCMA network, OFSTED and DoH.